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    日本明治大學氣賀澤保規教授來我院講學

    作者:徐科偉   來源:歷史學院    發布日期:2019-06-26

    2019年6月24日下午3點,日本明治大學氣賀澤保規教授在我院103會議室發表題為《房山云居寺石經所見唐代“佛教社會”——從地方府兵制和巡禮活動兩個視角探析》的學術講演。講座由劉安志教授主持,相關專業師生到場聆聽。

    首先,氣賀澤保規教授介紹自己如何邂逅中國歷史與文化。氣賀澤先生在京都大學求學期間,師從川勝義雄教授學習東洋史。畢業后,供職于佛教大學,后調至富山大學。1985年9月-1986年8月,赴中國留學,先后在北京大學歷史系及陜西師范大學唐史研究所交流學習。1986年4月訪問武漢大學,拜訪唐長孺先生,從此與武大結下不解之緣。氣賀澤先生留學中國期間,參觀了房山云居寺及其石經,回國后組織了房山石經共同研究班,出版了《中國佛教石經研究》。1995年4月-2014年3月,轉入明治大學任教

    接下來,氣賀澤保規先生開始報告在房山石經所展現的唐代前期地方府兵制問題。首先是房山石經的概要。房山云居寺建于唐初,收藏有四千余塊隋唐石經。隋唐刻經事業始于靜琬。氣賀澤教授指出靜琬刻經不單純依賴一部分特定權勢者,而是廣泛尋求當地社會信眾的廣泛支持。氣賀澤教授介紹了7世紀至9世紀后半期刻經事業的主要承擔者。通過三件石經碑刻題記,氣賀澤教授指出,地方行政機構中處于中上層官吏群體成為靜琬死后刻經事業的支持者。而后,氣賀澤教授利用《佛說造像形象福報經》題記討論了社會下層的狀況,題記顯示,該經的主要支持者為張氏一族,他們通過府兵制和勛官在權力末端取得地位,成為新興階層,并通過刻經事業展示彌勒信仰和表現其地位。另一方面,也表明云居寺吸收新興實力階層,保證刻經事業繼續。

    隨后,經過中場休息,氣賀澤保規教授開始從巡禮活動的角度討論唐代“佛教社會”。氣賀澤教授先是介紹《大般若經》的刻經事業。氣賀澤教授指出,安史之亂以前,《大般若經》刻經事業的主要支持者是幽州地區的商人,包括許多“行”;安史之亂以后,地方官員和庶民集團成為刻經事業的主要支持者。平民階層廣泛參與刻經事業后,石碑中開始出現巡禮的記錄。氣賀澤教授認為,830年代至會昌初期,出現了一般民眾積極參與云居寺巡禮活動的跡象。氣賀澤先生又利用日本僧人圓仁《入唐求法巡禮行記》,補充論證了當時五臺山地區的巡禮熱潮。接下來,氣賀澤教授考證了唐代“巡禮”一詞的詞義動態變化。巡禮一詞7世紀開始出現,主要用于表現高僧參拜外國的佛教圣跡,幾乎看不到平民的身影。9世紀以后,普通民眾的巡禮活動逐漸頻繁。石經中的巡禮并非一般詞匯,而是指一種參拜遠離日常生活的佛教勝地的非常移動。此外,巡禮和會昌滅佛亦有一定關聯。

    長達三個多小時的精彩講演結束之后,在場師生與氣賀澤教授進行了熱烈的互動交流。本次活動系姜望來副教授主持的武漢大學青年學者學術團隊“中國歷史上的國家凝聚、族群融合與信仰變遷”系列學術講座之一。


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